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I continue to read and explore about biofilms. It is my understanding that protozoa will form Biofilms. Once the protozoa have formed biofilms, they use several protective measures to guard themselves against eradication such as efflux pumps. As I learn more I am realizing that Quorum Sensing is one of the main factors. Quorum Sensing is a communication channel that they use to congregate and form biofilms. Many bacteria are becoming antibiotic resistant and much of the current study deals with disrupting the quorum sensing ability. So if you disrupt the quorum sensing, they cannot form biofilms thus cannot disable antibiotics or immune system attacks.
**Update Oct 2011 :: the current protocol is using Lactoferrin (100%) with Xylitol with low dose antibiotics (Pharma & herbals including Caprylic Acid) - Now adding Witch Hazel (as raw herb and not liquid) which has been shown in studies to reduce biofilms as well. Pulsing antibiotics seems to be an important role in this as well
From what I am reading it is evident that natural products (herbal based) work not by directly killing the organism but by disrupting the quorum sensing.
I continue to post relevant articles concerning Quorum Sensing, Biofilms and Efflux pumps. It is my thoughts that these organisms can be quite resistant to antibiotic therapy. There are several theories:
1) The organisms are specific to particular abx - I have seen ample evidence that not everyone will respond to a single therapy option or combination and sometimes it is necessary to find the right combination.
2) The organisms utilize Efflux pumps to disable abx. This is well known in bacterial situation such as MRSA. There is quite a bit of information to show that natural substances (herbs) can disable these pumps so this combined with abx has a better chance of killing the organisms. Wikipedia states this about efflux pumps.
Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for extrusion of toxic substances and antibiotics outside the cell; this is considered to be a vital part of xenobiotic metabolism. This mechanism is important in medicine as it can contribute to bacterial antibiotic resistance.Efflux systems function via an energy-dependent mechanism (Active transport) to pump out unwanted toxic substances through specific efflux pumps. Some efflux systems are drug-specific...
In my experience I have had several things begin to kill these only for them to adapt and repopulate.
3) Biofilms. Biofilms are complex systems that protect the colony and efflux pumps are part of the biofilms. I have recently found out there are other defense mechanisms they will use and one of these is 'virulence factor'. In short, virulence factor disables any immune responders hence making it more virulent. Dr. Davies states that if the biofilms are disabled then the organisms become 1000x more suspectible to abx or the immune response.