Researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the DIABIMMUNE Study Group have identified a correlation between changes in gut microbiota and the onset of type 1 diabetes in the largest longitudinal study of the microbiome to date. This study followed infants who were genetically predisposed to the condition found that onset for those who developed the disease was preceded by a drop in microbial diversity.Previous studies have been linked to changes in the microbiome to various diseases including diabetes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.A research team of Gastroenterology at Mass General Hospital followed 33 infants who were genetically predisposed to Type I diabetes. From birth to age 3, the team regularly tested the subjects' stool samples, collecting data on the composition of their gut microbiome. In the participants that developed Type I diabetes during this period, the team observed a 25% drop in community diversity one year prior to the onset of the disease. In addition, this population shift included a decrease in beneficial bacteria as well as an increase in opportunistic bacteria that are known to promote inflammation. These findings are further evidence of a link between gut inflammation and type 1 diabetes.