Sep 7 14 11:32 PM

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Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites:
A worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt

Panagiotis Karanis, Christina Kourenti and Huw Smith


At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have been reported.
North American and European outbreaks accounted for 93% of all reports and nearly two-thirds
of outbreaks occurred in North America. Over 30% of all outbreaks were documented from
Europe, with the UK accounting for 24% of outbreaks, worldwide. Giardia duodenalis and
Cryptosporidium parvum account for the majority of outbreaks (132; 40.6% and 165; 50.8%,
respectively), Entamoeba histolytica and Cyclospora cayetanensis have been the aetiological
agents in nine (2.8%) and six (1.8%) outbreaks, respectively, while Toxoplasma gondii and
Isospora belli have been responsible for three outbreaks each (0.9%) and Blastocystis hominis
for two outbreaks (0.6%). Balantidium coli, the microsporidia, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria
fowleri were responsible for one outbreak, each (0.3%)

Read the rest of the article here >> http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/005/0001/0050001.pdf