Remove this ad
avatar

linenup

fanatic

Posts: 1,687

Lead

Jul 30 13 3:24 AM

Tags : :

Found a couple of good articles about the role of the immune system in the destruction of protozoa, namely macrophage activity.   Nitric Oxide (NO) is a byproduct of macrophage activation which kills protozoa.  NO production is involved in many other processes as well  is dependent on the amino acid Arginine. 


Macrophage cytotoxicity against Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is mediated by nitric oxide from L-arginine.
Lin JY, Chadee K.
Source

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Ste-Anne de Bellevue, Québec, Canada.
Abstract

The killing of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites by phagocytes involves oxidative and nonoxidative mediators. In this study, we determine whether L-arginine-derived nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the killing of E. histolytica trophozoites by activated murine macrophages in vitro. Elicited peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages activated with IFN-gamma alone or with IFN-gamma and LPS killed 62 to 73% of amebae, concomitant with increased levels of nitrate (NO2). Depletion of L-arginine by addition of arginase to culture medium abrogated macrophage amebicidal activity. NG-monomethyl L-arginine, an L-arginine analog, competitively inhibited NO2 release and amebicidal activity in a dose-dependent fashion, without affecting H2O2 production; however, the addition of excess L-arginine competitively restored macrophage amebicidal effects. In culture, sodium nitrite and sodium nitroprusside were cytotoxic to E. histolytica and this was reversed by the addition of myoglobin. Exogenously added FeSO4 prevented macrophage cytotoxicity. Addition of superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of O2-, partially inhibited amebicidal activity, without influencing NO2 production. Untreated and LPS-exposed macrophages produced high levels of H2O2 independent from NO2 production and amebicidal effects. However, the addition of catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, inhibited both amebicidal activity and NO2 production by activated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that NO is the major cytotoxic molecule released by activated macrophages for the in vitro cytotoxicity of E. histolytica and that O2- and H2O2 may be cofactors for the NO effector molecule.
PMID: 1318338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]1


Activated mouse macrophages kill Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites by releasing reactive nitrogen intermediates.
Denis M, Ghadirian E.
Source

Unité de Recherche Pulmonaire, CHUS, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
Abstract

Mouse macrophages activated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are highly cytotoxic for the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Herein, we show that this killing by activated macrophages is L-arginine dependent, inasmuch as it was blocked by exogenous arginase or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. These two inhibitors had no effect on E. histolytica cytolytic activity against L929 fibroblasts. Also, macrophage killing of E. histolytica always correlated with nitrite presence in the supernatant fluids. Finally, it was shown that addition of excess iron or the reductant sodium dithionite to activated macrophages blocked their ability to kill E. histolytica. Overall, this suggests that killing of E. histolytica by activated macrophages depends on the production of reactive nitrogen intermediates which leads to critical iron loss and protozoan parasite death.








Quote    Reply   
Remove this ad
Remove this ad

#2 [url]

Jul 31 13 3:30 AM

Excellent find linenup.  And this article is also required reading:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232666/

It's like the search for the holy grail.  How do parasites evade our immune system?  Latest research indicates that both Giardia and Blasto downregulate (or knockout) the host anti-parasitic defense mechanism - nitric oxide (NO) which is produced by the intestinal epithelial cells. 

Giardia appears to consume L.Arginine as an energy source and our epithelial cells require L.Arginine to produce nitric oxide: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3446895/

If we can restore the NO function of epithelial cells - then perhaps we can kill the parasite - without drugs.  A blast of NO will kill just about anything!

So, how do you do this?  Taking high dose L.Arginine isn't the solution because the parasite can directly benefit.

However - if you take Citrulline (a precursor to L.Arginine) the epithelial cells convert this to L.Arginine to produce NO - without the parasite intervening.  Apparently, parasites are unable to utilise Citrulline.

Bottom line.  Citrulline is worth some investigation - available at www.iherb.com

I've ordered some today and will report back.  Oh, and for the guys - Citrulline improves erectile function...

Quote    Reply   
avatar

linenup

fanatic

Posts: 1,687

#3 [url]

Jul 31 13 4:53 AM



Great addition woodie, makes sense!   Will go over the health food store and get some citrulline.

   

ebrooker:  there is supportive evidence of milk killing off pathogens through several factors (lysozyme etc)    see this link 

Colostrum contains many of these and reports are favorable.  



The discovery of pathogens in human milk has coincided with the discovery of multiple, redundant anti-microbial mechanisms in the milk of all mammals, which protect the infant by building immunity and by binding or destroying pathogens. "Protective factors in milk can target multiple early steps in pathogen replication and target each step with more than one antimicrobial compound. The antimicrobial activity in human milk results from protective factors working not only individually but also additively and synergistically."4




These protective factors include immunoglobulins, mucins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, oligosaccharides and short- and medium-chain fatty acid




http://www.westonaprice.org/childrens-health/is-mothers-milk-sterile




Quote    Reply   

#4 [url]

Jul 31 13 5:42 AM

Thanks for the info both.

I am on 4 pints of milk a week, fermented for around 3 days (2 nights). Interestingly, when I started drinking the milk I stopped feeling depressed! And bone pain seemed to have lessoned too.

Citrulline looks interesting, please keep us updated on how you get on with it.




Quote    Reply   
Remove this ad
avatar

linenup

fanatic

Posts: 1,687

#5 [url]

Jul 31 13 7:04 PM

ebrooker:  secmeth posted an article about secondary lactase deficiency, so you might want to watch the milk and see if it causes a problem.   

Quote    Reply   

#6 [url]

Aug 1 13 6:27 AM

ebrooker:  secmeth posted an article about secondary lactase deficiency, so you might want to watch the milk and see if it causes a problem.   

-linenup


Do you know which section it was in LU?


I am lactose intolerant, however I find the Kefir fermented for 3 days seems to be fine.


There was also some interesting research referred to in Dr Natasha Cambell-McBride's GAPS book - where they suggest lactose intolerance actually stems from a lack of e.coli bacteria in the gut. Guess which bacteria in my MM test was low? Yep, e.coli! Fascinating!

Quote    Reply   
avatar

linenup

fanatic

Posts: 1,687

#8 [url]

Oct 22 13 1:54 AM

Posting results from Citrulline and Arginine use -  no discernible results either taking by itself or with Arginine.   However Lysine seems to be a good thing.   Proteins (amino acids) are critical for immune building and healing and are involved in every aspect of the biological system.   Don't forget that there are many vitamin co-factors (b vitamins) that are necessary for protein assimilation - minerals also play key roles as well.   Using digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of protein.  

Quote    Reply   
Remove this ad
Add Reply

Quick Reply

bbcode help